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Exclusion Strategies

Exclusion Strategies allow defining custom runtime logic that controls which properties should be (de)serialized.

Request Method#

In a web framework, being able to exclude a property based on the request method can be a handy tool. I.e. imagine having IgnoreOnUpdate, IgnoreOnCreate, and IgnoreOnRead annotations to specify how a specific property should behave as part of a PUT, POST, and GET request respectively. For example, allow a property to be set when an object is created, a POST request, but prevent it from being altered when it is updated, a PUT request.

# Define and register our exclusion strategy
struct IgnoreOnMethodExclusionStrategy
  include Athena::Serializer::ExclusionStrategies::ExclusionStrategyInterface

  # Inject the `ART::RequestStore` in order to have access
  # to the current request, and its method.
  def initialize(@request_store : ART::RequestStore); end

  # :inherit:
  def skip_property?(metadata : ASR::PropertyMetadataBase, context : ASR::Context) : Bool
    # Don't skip if there isn't a request, such as a non web request context.
    return false unless requst_method = @request_store.request?.try &.method

    # Determine the annotation that should be read off the property.
    annotation_class = case requst_method
                       when "POST" then IgnoreOnCreate
                       when "PUT"  then IgnoreOnUpdate
                       when "GET"  then IgnoreOnRead
                       else             return false

    # Skip the property if it has the corresponding annotation.
    metadata.annotation_configurations.has? annotation_class

# Define a custom serializer that is aliased to the `SerializerInterface`.
# This tells DI to inject this type when the interface is encountered.
# This step is mainly to globally enable our exclusion strategy.
# An alternate solution would be to have some global context factory
# method that would return a new `ART::Context` object with or without
# the exclusion strategy applied to it that could be provided to the default serializer.
# This implementation was also chosen to demonstrate how default services can be extended by wrapping
# them in customer logic.  In the future the Decorator pattern could also be added to the DI component.
@[ADI::Register(alias: Athena::Serializer::SerializerInterface)]
struct CustomSerializer
  include ASR::SerializerInterface

  # Inject the default serializer and our custom exclusion strategy.
  def initialize(
    @serializer : Athena::Serializer::Serializer,
    @ignore_on_method_exclusion_strategy : IgnoreOnMethodExclusionStrategy
  ); end

  # :inherit:
  # For each method a part of the `SerializerInterface`, add our strategy to the context,
  # then call the default serializer with the modified context.
  def deserialize(type : _, input_data : String | IO, format : ASR::Format | String, context : ASR::DeserializationContext =
    context.add_exclusion_strategy @ignore_on_method_exclusion_strategy
    @serializer.deserialize type, input_data, format, context

  # :inherit:
  def serialize(data : _, format : ASR::Format | String, context : ASR::SerializationContext =, **named_args) : String
    context.add_exclusion_strategy @ignore_on_method_exclusion_strategy
    @serializer.serialize data, format, context

  # :inherit:
  def serialize(data : _, format : ASR::Format | String, io : IO, context : ASR::SerializationContext =, **named_args) : Nil
    context.add_exclusion_strategy @ignore_on_method_exclusion_strategy
    @serializer.serialize data, format, io, context

# Register our `IgnoreOn*` annotations as configuration annotations.
ACF.configuration_annotation IgnoreOnCreate
ACF.configuration_annotation IgnoreOnUpdate
ACF.configuration_annotation IgnoreOnRead

# Define a type to test with.
record Article, id : Int32, author_id : Int32 = 100 do
  include ASR::Serializable

  @author_id : Int32

# Register our controller as a service,
# be sure to define it as public.
@[ADI::Register(public: true)]
class ExampleController < ART::Controller
  # Inject the serializer into the controller to test with.
  # I'm using a controller because it's simpler, but this would
  # most likely be a part of an `ART::ParamConverterInterface`.
  def initialize(@serializer : ASR::SerializerInterface); end

  def new_article(request : ART::Request) : Article
    @serializer.deserialize Article, request.body.not_nil!, :json

  def update_article(request : ART::Request) : Article
    @serializer.deserialize Article, request.body.not_nil!, :json

# Run the server

# POST /article body: {"id":1,"author_id":2} # => {"id":1,"author_id":100}
# PUT /article body: {"id":1,"author_id":2} # => {"id":1,"author_id":2}

Since we marked author_id as IgnoreOnCreate, the default value is used during the POST /article request, while the user provided value is used for the PUT /article request.

A similar concept could also be applied to allow for ACL based exclusions. I.e. exclude properties if the current user doesn't have the required roles/permissions to view it.